Evaluation and refinement of spindle type header prototype and development of a cotton picker
Manual picking accounts for 30% of cost of cultivation in India. Limitations exist for the commercialization of cotton pickers available in western markets, due to their massive size and power requirements. Additionally, operation of cotton harvester needs trained workforce, and repair and maintenance facilities at the village level. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop a small-scale cotton harvester to cater the needs of small farms in India.
Harvested Ankur 3028 BGII and PKV-081 Bt with the modified spindle type Cotton picking head recorded higher trash content (17% and 27%, seed cotton basis), respectively, as compared to 1% in the manually picked cotton.
New conceptual design for tractor mounted spindle type picker was finalised in order to accommodate the prototype into 90 cm row to row spacing. The PGR based chemical defoliant’s application to cotton leaves at the time of 60-70% boll opening resulted in more than 90% leaf defoliation without any adverse effect on the fibre quality parameters.
Implements developed under the project on Mechanization of Cotton Production (Technology Mission on Cotton) with ICAR-CICR as lead centre
The project on Mechanization of cotton production under TMC MM –I was undertaken to save the cost of different operations which results in reducing the cost of cultivation. Timely operation with reducing drudgery to human labour can be achieved through the use of improved implements. The project was run in a network mode with SAUs TNAU, PAU, UAS, Dr PDKV and ICAR-CIRCOT.
Precision planter for cotton (TNAU)
Precision vacuum seeders have a metering mechanism consists of disc with metering holes on a particular radius and chamber. As the disc rotates, the vacuum applied to the metering holes through the chamber enables them to pick up seeds from the reserve hopper next to the disc. A three Hp vacuum blower with a maximum capacity of 230m3 per hour was used to generate the vacuum pressure for the metering system. Runner type furrow openers were provided behind which cast iron pressure wheels with appropriate pressure bars were used in the developed planter. The per cent of multiple, one seed and missed hill were recorded as 2.7, 96 and 1.3 respectively. The results obtained from Plate 1 Prototype precision planter for cotton studies on development of precision pneumatic planter has yielded encouraging results for further research and development of viable commercial equipment.
Manually operated dibbler for cotton (Raichur)
The manually operated dibbler consists of a seed hoper, cell penetration in the soil, pipe and handle. The dibbler is given a jerk at the handle in the forward direction, which rotates the roller in seed hoper and releases one or two seeds depending upon of the size of cell. At this moment the jaws also open and allow seed fall in the cavity created by the jaws. Percentage of missing hills using the manually operated dibbler was within the range of germination percentage. The cost of operation in terms of Rs/h and Rs/ha is Rs.6.46 and Rs.380 respectively for traditional method of sowing. The value cost of operation of Rs 9.802 and the value of saving in time of 11.05 per cent was observed with manually operate dibbler compared with traditional method sowing.
Bullock drawn vertical rotor precision planter: (CICR)
Bullock drawn vertical rotor type cotton planter is suitable for planting of delinted cotton seed at specified row and plant spacing in vertisols resulting in lesser seed requirement, greater accuracy, saving time and labours over the traditional manual method. . Two vertical discs with notches on periphery are mounted on shaft driven by a ground wheel through chain and sprocket assembly with transmission ratio of 1:1. The planter was tested and the results revealed that the average depth of seed placement was 6 cm below ground with a germination percentage of 84 % and a seed rate of 5.2 kg/ha. The field capacity of the implement was 4.5 hrs/ha.
Self propelled Pneumatic Planter (PDKV)
Plate 2 Self propelled pneumatic planter for Cotton sowing
The self propelled pneumatic planter was developed, as an attachment to the 5 hp petrol engine powered prime mover for precision sowing cotton (Plate 2). A blower with special features of high suction capacity was designed and developed. The blade of the blower was designed to create sufficient negative pressure. The machine could thus ensure timeliness & preciseness in operation and enhanced productivity with reduced Drudgery because of Effortless operation. The machine could thus ensure timeliness & preciseness in operation and enhanced productivity with reduced drudgery because of Effortless operation. The soil moisture content was 27 % at the time of sowing and found equipment working satisfactorily in high moisture content. The travelling speed was 3.2 km/h which was suitable for operator to operate for two hours continuously. Actual field capacity 0.51 ha/h with 88% field efficiency. Cost of operation was Rs. 215/ha which is remarkable less than any other traditional method.
Inclined plate planter and happy seeder for BT cotton. (PAU)
Happy seeder machine is used for direct sowing of wheat in combine harvested paddy fields in standing stubble conditions. An inclined plate planter attachment for planting cotton using happy seeder in wheat residue was developed. This mechanism was attached with happy seeder for sowing cotton in standing stubble conditions. The inclined plate planter was designed and developed as a rear mounted attachment to conventionally available seed-cum-fertilizer drills. This machine can sow bold grains like of soybean, cotton, groundnut etc. Yield recorded for inclined plate planter was 1675 kg/ha and for happy seeder was 1390 kg/ha.
Single row manually operated self propelled weeder suitable for north zone (PAU)
Plate 3 Single row manually operated self propelled weeder
It is self propelled machine used for weeding and tillage operation in orchards and in wider row crops. It consisted of a 4.8 hp light- weight diesel engine mounted on the power tiller chassis, power transmission system, two M.S. wheels, a frame and rotary blades. The power tiller and tractor operated weeders, gaining popularity among farmers of row crop were evaluated and modified for the frequent breakdowns suffered by them. Farmers were satisfied with performance of machine. The field capacity of self propelled rotary weeder was 0.07-0.09 ha/h and of tractor operated weeders was 0.25 -0.33 ha/h respectively. Weeding efficiency of all type of row weeders was about 92-96 %.
Tractor operated air sleeve boom sprayer (PAU)
Air sleeve boom sprayer is useful for uniform and accurate application and deposition of pesticide and fungicide. It is mounted on 3 point linkage of the tractor and is operated by tractor PTO. The machine is comprised of a 400 liter capacity tank, 18 atomizer, centrifugal blower and hydraulic pump. Atomizers release the pesticide solution into stream of air blast produced by the centrifugal blower. The air blast distributes the chemical in the form of very fine particles throughout its swath width behind the tractor. An isometric view of the machine and view of machine in operation is shown in Plate 18. Field capacity of the air sleeve boom sprayer was 1.70 to 2.0 ha/h and tank filling time was 27 minutes.
Solar powered knapsack sprayer (CICR)
Plate 5 Solar powered knapsack sprayer
Solar powered knapsack has been designed and developed using a 10 watt solar photovoltaic panel and charge controller mounted on top of a battery operated sprayer. Apart from spraying the same power can also be used for the household electricity when power supply is not available. The weight of the sprayer without pesticide is 9 kg, with a swath of 90cm giving 10 sprays with a single charge. (Photo enclosed). It has a field capacity of 4 hrs/ha.
Wick Applicator (CICR)
Plate 6. Wick Applicator.
Wick Applicator is used to regulate the weeds in the field. The systematic weedicides which touch the surface of plants, kills the entire plant. However, spraying such chemicals has the risk of killing nearby cotton plants by drift of the weedicides. Therefore, the wick applicator only brushes over the surface of the weeds and eliminates the risk of contaminating the cotton plants. It is operated between the rows of cotton. The field capacity of wick applicator was found to be 111 lit./ha. to 555 lit./ha. It should be changed depending upon the brush size and the position of flow regulating cock position, and also the density and age of weeds.
Spading machine for rice fallow cotton(TNAU)
A tractor operated rotary spading machine for rice fallow cotton was developed. The unit consists of a main frame, gearbox. Crank shaft assembly, digger arm and shovel assembly and depth control wheel. The performance of the rotary spading machine was evaluated and compared with the existing practice of manual digging with spade. The operating width of the machine is 1.2 m and can plough the soil without causing subsoil compaction as other conventional methods do. Operation of spading machine resulted in 26.20 to and 97.9 per cent saving in cost and time respectively . Cost of the spading machine is Rs.60, 000. Coverage is one ha per day.
Twin row subsoil organic mulcher(TNAU)
A subsoil coir pith applicator was developed, which placed the coirpith at a depth of 15 to 30 cm below the ground level. Coirpith is fed by a vane type metering device rotated by a ground wheel. Deep loosening of soil and placement of coirpith in the subsoil layers as mulch directly below the crop rows would improve the root zone which would not recompact during subsequent years. The unique property of coirpith to hold 7-8 times its weight of moisture helps in improving the moisture status of root zone. It is observed that the subsoil mulching opened up a triangular furrow in which the coirpith is placed to a depth of 15-30 cm at an application rate of 24 t ha-1 and at row to row spacing of 0.75 m.
Development of improved small farm equipment for cotton farmers: (CICR)
Adjustable hoe: Bullock operated hoe for interculture operation in cotton cropping system. Various sizes of blades (9”, 12” & 18”) can be accommodated in a frame, with quick coupling and decoupling. Ridger: For making ridges in between the rows of cotton for moisture conservation in soil and to act as a channel for irrigation. It can also be used for creating ridges and furrows before sowing. Bund former: This equipment can be used for making bunds in the fields to facilitate easy surface irrigation. Iron plough with sowing attachment: For primary tillage operation of ploughing and sowing of rabi crops like gram
Plat 7. Small farm equipment for cotton farmers
Flail type chopper cum loader (PAU)
Flail type chopper cum loader in a single operation can harvest, chop and load the chopped crop material in the trailer attached to the machine. The blades on the rotary shaft are hinged and are staggered in 4 lines with 7 blades in each line on a horizontal axis perpendicular to the direction of motion. Working width of the machine is 1.80 m. nd view of flail type chopper cum loader for paddy straw cutting and loading is shown in Plate 27. Approx. 70 % cotton stalks were shredded in size range of up to 20 cm for all three cotton varieties with Flail type chopper cum loader. Field capacity of flail type chopper cum loader varied from 0.25 to 0.35 ha/h.
Self propelled cotton stalk slasher for cotton (PDKV)
Uprooting of cotton plant, collection, transportation, size reduction, compost making and then again transportation in the field needs one year and involve huge cost of operation. Hence this method is not suitable & practicable on farmer’s field. Thus, in situ size reduction only can serve the purpose. The stasher was tested on cotton crop. As soon as the field of deshi cotton was ready to slash, the self propelled stasher was operated on 3 ha area of variety of AK-7. The speed of operation was 2.7 to 3.2 km/h which was comfortable to the operator. The actual field capacity was 0.18 to 0.247 ha/h. Fuel consumption was measured to 6 to 8 lit/ha. Cost of operation varies from Rs. 420 to 544 per ha. Cost saving varies from 54 to 65% over traditional method.
Cleaning machinery employed for processing of machine picked cotton (CIRCOT)
There were two cleaning machines (i.e. a Stick Machine and a Saw-band Cleaner) based on sling on action developed under the NATP programme “Adoption and refinement of cotton picker and cleaning system” for pre-cleaning of machine picked cotton. These two machines have been further refined under this project so as to bring down the trash content in the machine picked cotton to the acceptable level. The refinement of these machines include incorporation of variable feeding systems, modification in the grid bars and providing safety arrangements like belt, gear and chain covers. The pictorial views of the modified machines are given in Plate 30. The average percentage of foreign matter content present in the machine picked cotton has been brought down from 19% trash in the machine picked cotton to 3.11% using saw cylinder cleaner in combination with the cylinder cleaner and stick machine. Hence, the overall cleaning efficiency of this machine is as 23.59%
Farm Implements for cotton
Animal Drawn Blade harrow
It is used mainly for secondary tillage operations like breaking clods and land smoothening in seedbed preparation. It is also used for breaking surface soil crust, controlling weeds, removing old stubble from the field and for soil mulching after the rains. It works like a sweep skimming under the soil surface without inverting it. In some parts of the country it is used for covering the seeds sown and for harvesting groundnut crop. In the deep black soil regions of the country, the implement is used even for primary tillage. It is a common implement in dry or semi-arid regions, especially in black and medium black soil tracts.
Animal Drawn Chisel Ploughs and Subsoilers
The chisel plough is a tool having a rigid curved or straight shank with a relatively narrow shovel point. It may also be termed as a heavy-duty deep cultivator. Chisel plough and sub-soiler are similar in their actions, but differ mainly in their working depths. Because the chisel plough does not work as deep as a sub soiler, its draft is lower. The chisel plough works primarily in the topsoil and hardpan at shallow depths and is therefore suitable to work with animal power, with a heavy pair or with two pairs of bullocks. The subsoiler is usually operated with a tractor, as the power required to rip open the hard pan at deeper depths is high.
It is a pointed curved bar type implement useful for breaking hard layer of soil below the normal ploughing depth to facilitate infiltration of rainwater. This implement was developed at TNAU Coimbatore. Use of this implement leads to increase in yield by upto 15 per cent compared to conventional method of field preparation by country plough without any deep ploughing. It costs Rs 1000 and its cost of operation is Rs 90/ha. The effective field capacity and labour requirement were 0.02 ha/h and 5 man-h/ha, respectively. The draft of the implement was 1200 N.
Animal Drawn Channel cum Bund Former
It is a bullock drawn implement suitable for making field channels to manage the irrigation water effectively and making small bunds across the slope for interplot rainwater harvesting under rainfed areas. It is operated under well-prepared and pulverised soil condition and can be used under all types of soil and crop conditions. This implement was developed at IGFRI, Jhansi. It costs Rs 1000/- and its cost of operation is Rs 40/ha. The effective field capacity, field efficiency, draft and labour requirement were 1.0 ha/h, 70%, 450-550 N and 1 man-h/ha, respectively.
CIAE Animal Drawn Multipurpose Tool Frame
It is a multipurpose frame with screw jacks to adjust the depth of operation. It is suitable for tillage, sowing, weeding and interculture operations under irrigated farming. The cost of the equipment with all attachments for tillage, sowing, weeding and interculture operations is Rs 10,000/-. For ploughing operation with MB plough, the effective field capacity, field efficiency and labour requirement were 0.06 ha/h, 83% and 20 man-h/ha, respectively. The draft of the equipment was 1060 N. For sweep operation the tool frame gave effective field capacity, field efficiency and labour requirement were 0.12 ha/h, 60% and 10 man-h/ha, respectively. The draft of the implement during this operation was 1100 N.
Tractor Drawn Bed-Furrow Former
The tractor drawn bed-furrow former is capable of forming alternate beds and channels. The beds are suitable for planting crops like sorghum, maize and cotton. This bed and furrow system is ideal for efficient irrigation management. This implement was developed at TNAU, Coimbatore. This implement cost Rs 10,000/- and its cost of operation is Rs 500/ha compared to Rs 1600/ha with conventional method. The effective field capacity, field efficiency, and labour requirement were 0.75-1.00 ha/h, 75% and 8 man-h/ha, respectively.
Tractor Drawn Channel cum Bund Former
It is a tractor-mounted implement suitable for making field channels to manage the irrigation water effectively and making small bunds across the slope for interplot rain water harvesting under rainfed areas. It is operated under well-prepared and pulverised soil condition and can be used under all types of soil and crop conditions. This implement was developed at IGFRI, Jhansi. This implement costs Rs 1700/- and its cost of operation is Rs 30/ha compared to Rs 300/ha by conventional method. The effective field capacity, field efficiency, and labour requirement were 4 ha/h, 70%, and 0.25 man-h/ha, respectively.
Tractor Drawn Pulverising Roller Attachment
It is an attachment to commercially available tractor operated tyned cultivator. It is suitable for puddling as well as dry seedbed preparation.. It costs Rs 3500/- and the cost of operation is Rs 290/ha. The effective field capacity, field efficiency, and labour requirement were 0.62-75 ha/h, 70-90% and 1.5 man-h/ha, respectively.
TNAU Tractor Drawn Combine Tillage Tool
It is a tillage tool having cutting blade with rotary slicer making it suitable for seedbed preparation in one pass under irrigated soil conditions. It has a blade in front, which loosens the soil. The rotary slicer operated with tractor pto pulverises the soil This implement costs Rs 20,000/- and its cost of operation is Rs 770/ha compared to Rs 1740/ha by conventional method. The effective field capacity, field efficiency, field consumption and labour requirement were 0.22 ha/h, 71 per cent, 2.3 l/h, and 9 man-h/ha, respectively.
Tractor Drawn Spiked Clod Crusher
It is used as a combination tillage tool with tractor drawn harrow or cultivator. It is suitable for breaking and segregation of clods for seedbed preparation after paddy harvest. This implement was developed at GBPUAT, Pantnagar during 1988-93. It saves 22 per cent time of operation and 2-3 h/ha of tractor compared to conventional method of using harrow and wooden patela in two operations. It costs Rs 6,500/-. The effective field capacity, draft and labour requirement were 0.4 ha/h, 750 N and 2.5 man-h/ha, respectively.
Manually Operated Naveen Dibbler
It can be used in all type of soils with good land preparation. It is suitable for sowing pea, soybean, sorghum and maize in small plots or hilly terrain. It can also be used for gap filling. The planting operation is accomplished by pushing the jaws into the soil at desired depth and forward movement of the dibbler to open the jaw to release seeds into the soil. This implement was developed at CIAE, Bhopal during 1981-83 and adopted by BAU, Ranchi. It costs Rs 200/- and its cost of operation is Rs 150/ha. The field capacity, missing seed and labour requirement were as 0.03 ha/h, 6%, and 39 man-h/ha, respectively.
Animal Drawn Jyoti Multicrop Planter
It is an animal drawn implement suitable for planting groundnut, sunflower, safflower, soybean, pigeon pea, bengal gram, sorghum, wheat and maize. The equipment can also be used for inter-cropping. This implement was developed at MPKV, Pune during 1975-78 and adopted by KAU, Tavanur. This implement costs Rs 7100/- and its cost of operation is Rs 250/ha compared to Rs 900/ha by conventional method. The effective field capacity, field efficiency, draft and labour requirement were 0.10 ha/h, 70%, 450-500 N and 10 man-h/ha, respectively.
HAU Animal Drawn Seed-cum-fertilizer Drill
It is a bullock drawn implement suitable for sowing wheat, gram, raya, pigeon pea, green gram and inter-cropping wheat, gram and cotton-bajra. This implement was developed at HAU, Hisar centre. It costs Rs 3000/- and cost of operation is Rs 120/ha. The effective field capacity, field efficiency, draft and labour requirement were 0.10-0.20 ha/h, 65-70%, 500-600 N and 5-10 man-h/ha, respectively.
CIAE Animal Drawn Planter
It is an animal drawn implement suitable for planting groundnut, maize, pigeonpea, sorghum and other oilseed and pulse crops. This implement was developed at CIAE, Bhopal during 1990-95. It costs Rs 5000/- and cost of operation is Rs 90/ha. Field capacity was found as 0.12-0.15 ha/h, Field efficiency 60-65%, Draft 800-900 N and Labour requirement 7-8 man-h/ha.
TNAU Animal Drawn Planter
Three-row planter consists of a simple frame; seed box, hitch bracket, handle, clutch and furrow openers (pointed shovel type). The unit is mounted on two wheels and is provided with cup feed type-metering mechanism. It is an animal drawn implement suitable for sowing groundnut, cotton, maize, sorghum and Bengal gram. This implement was developed at TNAU, Coimbatore during 1977-79. It saves 97.5 per cent labour and operating time and 73 per cent on cost of operation compared to conventional method of sowing behind the country plough. This implement costs Rs 10000/- and the cost of operation is Rs 425/ha compared to Rs 1600/ha by conventional method. The effective field capacity, field efficiency, draft and labour requirement were 0.19 ha/h, 74%, 600 N and 29 man-h/ha, respectively.
TNAU Tractor Mounted Cultivator – Planter
It consists of a seed box mounted on tractor drawn nine-tine cultivator frame. A ground drive wheel provides power to cup feed type seed metering mechanism through a clutch. A square bar is provided at the rear of the unit for covering the seeds. Seed to seed spacing is adjusted by changing the sprockets on drive shaft. Different sizes of cups are required for different crops.
CIAE Tractor Drawn Pneumatic Precision Planter
A six-row (option 2 and 4) tractor drawn pneumatic precision planter is suited for exact planting of single seeds at predetermined seed/row spacings. The machine works on suction principle. Air is sucked through a rotating plate having various holes radially. Any seed coming in contact gets stuck to the holes on the plate and falls immediately when suction is cut off at the lowest position near the ground, and hence no mechanical seed damage occurs. The fall of seed is synchronized with the predetermined seed spacings. The effective field capacity of the machine with a 2 m tool bar is 0.5 to 0.6 ha/h.
Tractor Mounted Seed Fertilizer Drill-cum-Planter
It is a planting attachment to the commercially available tractor operated seed-cum-fertilizer drills suitable for sowing maize, soybean, groundnut, cotton etc. This implement was developed at PAU, Ludhiana. It resulted in 5 to 10 per cent increase in yield compared to conventional method of sowing. This implement costs Rs 5000/- and cost of operation is Rs 450/ha compared to Rs 550/ha by conventional method. The effective field capacity, field efficiency and labour requirement were 0.30 ha/h, 60% and 7 man-h/ha, respectively.
CIAE Tractor Mounted Inclined Plate Type Planter
A tractor mounted inclined plate type planter was developed at CIAE, Bhopal during 1997-98. The planter unit consists of a frame with tool bar, seed boxes, furrow openers and ground drive wheel system. The planter is provided with six seed boxes of modular design with independent inclined plate type seed metering mechanism. The shoe type furrow openers are mounted on tool bar of mainframe through clamps. The seed boxes are bolted to furrow openers and seed box-furrow opener assemblies are adjustable for row to row spacing and work as a modular unit for sowing of each row. The drive to seed metering mechanism is transmitted from ground drive wheel through chain and sprockets. The ground drive wheel and power transmission system are fixed on the main frame. The cost of the implement is Rs.12000 and its cost of operation is Rs.400/ha. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were 0.50-0.65 ha/h and 70-75%, respectively.
CIAE Peg Type Dryland Weeder
It is a manual push-pull type weeder suitable for weeding and mulching in row crops with 225-450 mm row-to-row spacing like groundnut, sunflower, safflower, soybean, and sorghum. This implement was developed at CIAE, Bhopal during 1979-85 and adopted by MPKV, Pune and BAU, Ranchi. This implement costs Rs 250/- and its cost of operation is Rs 333/ha compared to Rs 750/ha by conventional method. The effective field capacity and weeding efficiency were 0.009 ha/h and 72%, respectively.
CIAE Single Wheel Hoe
It is a manual push-pull type single wheel weeder. It uproots and cuts weeds in upland row crops. It is suitable for weeding crops having row spacing of 300 mm or more such as sorghum, soybean, maize and pigeon pea. This implement was developed at CIAE, Bhopal during 1979-85. The implement costs Rs 300/- and its cost of operation is Rs 333/ha compared to Rs 750/ha by conventional method. The implement has been adopted by BAU, Ranchi. The effective field capacity and weeding efficiency were 0.009 ha/h and 83%, respectively.
PAU Wheel Hand Hoe
It is manually operated implement suitable for weeding and interculture in upland row crops except paddy. This implement was developed at PAU, Ludhiana during 1985-86. It costs Rs 270/- and its cost of operation is Rs 250-400/ha. The effective field capacity and weeding efficiency were 0.03-0.05 ha/h and 75%, respectively.
Animal Drawn Multipurpose Hoe
It is an animal drawn implement suitable for weeding and interculture operation in groundnut, sunflower, safflower, sorghum, soybean and other row crops. This implement was developed at MPKV, Pune during 1987-89. It costs Rs 835/- and its cost of operation is Rs 190 to 260/ha. For the depth of tilling of 35-75mm, draft of the implement varied 280-320 N. The effective field capacity, weeding efficiency and labour requirement were 0.15 – 0.25 ha/h 68-86%, 75-89%, and 6 man-h/ha, respectively.
Tractor Mounted Earthing cum Interculture Equipment
It is a disc type tractor mounted implement suitable for earthing and interculture operation in sugarcane where planting is done at row spacing of 700 mm or more. The equipment is useful for areas where lodging of crop is pronounced. This implement was developed at GBPUAT, Pantnagar during 1990-94. It costs Rs 8500/- and its cost of operation is about Rs 260/ha. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were 0.39 ha/h and 65%, respectively.
TNAU Power Weeder with Rotary and Tined Attachments
A power weeder was developed at TNAU, Coimbatore The equipment consists of a 5.4 hp, 34 kg light weight diesel engine mounted on the frame. From the engine, the power is transmitted to the transmission gearbox and then to the ground wheels and rotary weeder. The machine is suitable for wide spaced crops such as cotton, tapioca, sugarcane, grapes, coconut, arecanut and other orchard and plantation crops. The row mounted hoe and sweep type weeders have three staggered tynes with provision for adjusting row-to-row spacing. The engine is mounted in front of the drive wheels for balancing of the machine. The cost of the machine is Rs 50,000/- and its cost of operation is Rs 380/ha. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were 0.09-0.11 ha/h and 85%, respectively.
CIAE Self Propelled Weeder
A self-propelled interculture equipment (power weeder) was developed utilizing the chassis of self-propelled walking type reaper windrower. The machine was powered by a light weight petrol-start kerosene-run 1.1 kW engine having rated engine speed of 1500 rpm (at the camshaft) (Greaves make model MK 12/2). The machine is light in weight and can be operated with three sweeps of 150 mm for weeding operation in crops sown at 30-35 cm spacing. If the spacing is 40 cm or more, only two sweeps of 150-200 mm can be used. A set of narrow wheel of 110 mm width was also developed to facilitate operation of machine during weeding operation. For weeding operation in soybean crop (sown at 30 cm spacing) with two 150 mm size sweeps, the mean values of forward speed, effective field capacity, fuel (kerosene) consumption and weeding efficiency were 2.12 km/h, 0.149 ha/h, 0.64 l/h and 55.5%, respectively.
The sprayer carries 400 lt of chemical in a glass fibre tank or in two steel drums mounted on a steel frame fitted with a standard, which can also be used to fill the tank. The version illustrated is fitted with an overhead spray boom for treating tall crops grown in rows. The spray can cover two swaths of 9 m to either side. A 2.5 m wide path must be provided in the crop after every 18 m interval to allow the tractor to pass.
Self Propelled High Clearance Sprayer (PAU)
It is a self propelled unit suitable for spraying on tall crops like cotton. The machine consists of two rear steered wheels and two front lugged wheels which is powered with a 20 hp diesel engine through a gear box, tank, hydraulic pump and boom fitted with 15 nozzles. It costs Rs 1,80,000/- and its cost of operation is Rs 35/ha. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were 1.6-2.0 ha/h and 70-80%, respectively.
Self-Propelled Boom Sprayer
To meet the requirement of a high capacity effective sprayer, a self-propelled boom sprayer with 14 nozzles was developed at ANGRAU, Hyderabad center of AICRP on FIM. It was mounted on a frame of self propelled vertical conveyor reaper. The spacing of nozzles can be varied from 300 to 600 mm. The height of boom can be varied from 400 to 1200 mm. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were 0.6 ha/h and 61%, respectively.