WCRC 5 had 11 plenary lectures in five sessions spread on all the five days. The talk on 7 th Nov by Dr Roy Cantrell drove home the message that higher cotton yield lie at the intersection of multiple technologies like Plant Breeding , Agronomic Practice Improvements and Biotechnology and a blending of all these technologies is essential. There were three presentations on 8 th Nov. Dr Raju Barwale summarized the efforts initiated by Mahyco-Monsanto partnership which later shaped into Bt cotton technology, a technology which had the fastest adoption rate in the history of agriculture. Dr Ed Barnes outlined the life cycle analysis initiated by Cotton Incorporated, an attempt for a comprehensive environmental audit for the entire cotton production processing and consumption chain. Dr Mangesh Teli traversed us across the advances in arena functional textiles and the initiatives taken by the Institute for Chemical Technology, Mumbai. On 9 th Nov., Dr Darryl Bowman raised a serious debate on whether cotton breeding was really progressing across the world. He clearly pointed out that efforts in cotton breeding have increased at the private level and declined at the public level. Dr John Landers passionately described the virtues of conservation agriculture, its principles and practices, and also enumerated the key initial adoption problems. Dr C.D. Mayee in his paper highlighted that the adoption of Bt cotton in India altered the species composition, fibre quality profile, cotton seed oil supply, cotton research priorities, the composition of insecticides used and the entire crop husbandry practices. He also suggested research priorities to sustain the momentum provided by Bt cotton. The paper by Dr. V. Santhanam on 10 th Nov took us down the memory lane vividly describing the various landmarks in the cotton improvement programme pursued in India from 1920 to 2010 and ended it with a future breeding agenda. To make cotton IPM more successful, Dr Derek Russel stressed on the need for - clearly defined targets and well focused programmes, suitable for use by small scale farmers, good links between research and extension, adequate infrastructure and availability of trained personnel at all levels of project management on a long term basis. The paper by Professor Jiri Militky The paper described a complex evaluation of cotton fibre quality (cotton quality index) based on utility value concept. The talk by Dr David Stelly , this morning focused on “What can genomics do for cotton production, cotton utilization and why should researchers interested in advancing cotton help develop cotton genomics” .