Approved Package of Practices for cotton: Gujarat State
Preparation of land:
In case of normal monsoon, the land should be prepared with 1-2 cross harrowing. This may help in conservation of moisture in the soil. If monsoon receives late, the land should be prepared with one ploughing. Deep ploughing after 2-3 years with tractor drawn implements may reduce the problem of perennial weeds in the field.
Time of sowing:
Normally, the crop is sown with the onset of monsoon in the last week of June to first week of July. Where irrigation facility is available, the crop may be sown little earlier i.e. in the first week of June. Advance sowing of the crop will give higher yield than normally sown crop.
Seed rate and spacing:
The seed requirement of the variety mainly depends upon the size of the seed and method of distance of sowing. Spacing mainly depends on the growth habit of a variety and in which condition it is to be sown i.e. irrigated or rainfed. The details of seed rate and spacing of different cotton varieties is given in table 1. Normally, seed should be sown at a depth of 4-6 cm according to availability of moisture in the soil.
Selection of variety:
In Gujarat, following varieties have been recommended to grow in different cotton zones
|Zone||Recommended varieties/ hybrids|
|South Gujarat Cotton Zone||Digvijay|
|Middle Gujarat Cotton Zone||Digvijay , G.Cot-16, G.Cot-17 and G.Cot-23|
|Wagad Cotton Zone||V-797, G.Cot-13, G.Cot-21,G.Cot-12 (Surendranagar dist.), G.Cot-18 (Junagadh)|
|Mathio Cotton Zone||G.Cot.15 and G.Cot-19|
All hybrids like Hybrid-4, G.Cot.Hy-6, G.Cot.Hy-8, G.Cot.Hy-10, G.Cot.Hy-12, G.Cot.DH-7, G.Cot.DH-9 and G.Cot.MDH-11 and hirsutum varieties like Deviraj and G.Cot.10 are recommended for whole state. The economic characters of different varieties are given in Table-II.
Thinning and gap filling:
To harvest good yield one should maintain proper plant population in unit area. For the purpose one should carry out operation like thinning and gap filling as and when required.
The organic manure@ 10 tonnes/ha should be applied as this will help in conservation of moisture, increase in aeration, soil drainage, microbial activity and availability of nutrients. This will also help in improvement of soil structure. The recommended doses of inorganic fertilizers for different varieties are given in Table 1.
Weeding and inter-culturing:
The operation of interculturing and weeding may be followed as per one's requirement.
The weed should be removed by following deep ploughing in earlier stage of the crop
whereas shallow ploughing in later stage of the crop. This is to avoid damage to
In case of chemical weed control, the field should be sprayed with 2.8 litre/ha Fluchloralin in 600 liters of water. If spraying is to be done only on the rows of the crop, the quantity of the weedicide will be lesser i.e. 1 litre/ha or 50 ml in 10 litres of water.
Where irrigation facility is available, irrigation should be given 3-4 weeks after
last effective rainfall. In black soils, generally irrigation should be given at
an interval of 20-25 days. Where as, in sandy loam soils (GORADU), it should be
given at 15 days interval; irrigation water can be saved by irrigating the crop
with alternate furrow method without decreasing in the yield as compared to flood
In rainfed cultivation, when shortage of rainfall occurs, crop should be irrigated with one or two life saving irrigations.
In cotton various intercrops like soybean, tur, urid and mung can be taken up. The recommendations emerged in Gujarat are given in Table-1.
|No||Pest/disease||Measures to be taken|
Cypermethrin 10EC @ 50g ai/ha
Decamethrin 2.8 EC @ 15g ai/ha
Fenvalerate 20 EC @ 100 g ai/ha
Alphamethrin 10 EC @ 25 g ai/ha
Endosulfan 35 EC @ 875 g ai/ha
Profenphos 50 EC @ 1.0 kg ai/ha
Quinalphos 20 AF @ 2.5 l/ha
Polytrin C 44 EC @ 1.0 l/ha
Spinosad 48 SC @ 75g ai/ha
Bulldock 2.5 SC@ 18g ai/ha
|*Synthetic pyrethroids should be sprayed twice @ 15-20 days interval at the peak flowering stage alternated with conventional pesticides.|
|2.||Helicoverpa armigera**||Rimon 10 EC @ 100g ai/ha|
|** The IGR is sprayed when pest crosses the ETL|
Decis tablet 25% @ 10 g ai/ha (20 tab/ha)
Betacyfluthrin 2.5 SC@ 18g ai/ha
Spinosad 48 SC@ 50 g ai/ha
Methyl-o-demeton @ 1.0 l/ha
Aphids, Jassids, Thrips and White
Imidacloprid 200 SL@ 20g ai/ha
Acetamiprid 20 SP @ 10g ai/ha
Thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 25g ai/ha
Seed treatment :
Imidacloprid 70 WS @ 7.5 g/kg seed or
Thiamethoxam 70 WS @ 2.8g ai/kg seed or
Imidacloprid 600 FS @ 9ml/kg seed.
|***Need based application of any of the insecticides is recommended.|
|5.||White flies||Triazophos 40 EC @ 0.75 Kg ai/ha|
|6.||Cotton pest complex||
IPM strategy :
|1||Seedborne diseases #||
Delinting with sulphuric acid @100 ml/kg seed and seed
dressing with mercuric fungicide @2-3 g/kg of seed
|#Wash the seeds thoroughly after acid delinting dry it in shade before seed dressing|
|2||Bacterial blight $||
Streptomycin sulphate @0.005% + copper oxychloride 0.2% spray
Bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis Pv. malvacearum) disease of cotton causes 11.95, 11.14 and 9.26% avoidable loss in seed cotton yield of cultivars LRA-5166, G.Cot.Hy-10 and BC-68-2, respectively.
|$ Two to three sprays at 15 days interval after disease initiation|
|3||Wilt and Root rot||Follow cultural practices like long term crop rotation, balanced application of NPK, organic manure, mixed cropping of Moth or Urid, irrigation at short intervals, green manuring and destruction of infected debris.|
|Farmers of Gujarat growing cotton are advised to follow soil amendment with farm yard manure @ 20 tons/ha or pressmud or poultry manure @ 2 tons/ha for effective and economical management of root rot disease.|
|Farmers of Gujarat growing cotton recommended to following seed treatment with commercially available biocontrol agent Tricoderma viride @ 5g/kg seed for safer, effective and economical management of root rot disease.|
|4||Alternaria leaf spot ?||Captafol or Mancozeb @ 0.2% spray|
|?Four sprays at 20 days interval after disease initiation|
- Seed germination (one month after processing) is not affected by picking or position of boll. Other seed quality parameters are not adversely affected by either picking of position of boll. Therefore, it is recommended to the seed producers of American cotton (e.g. G.Cot.10) that all pickings and positions are alike with respect to fulfilling certification standards of germination (65%).
- It is recommended to the cotton growing farmers especially seed producers of desi cotton that seed germination is not affected by either picking or position of boll. Therefore, all picking are alike and can be used for seed purpose.
- Under specific conditions, defoliants like Ethrel 2000 ppm or NaCl 10% solution can be used at 50% boll bursting stage for hastening maturity of crop by about a week. This would also help in getting cleaner kapas.
- Seed producers of desi cotton hybrid G.Cot.DH-9 are advised to give two sprays of 1 mM Sodium benzoate (1.44 g/10 L. @ 400 L/ha) on female parent at the initiation of crossing programme and twenty days later to get higher seed yield (F1) and economic gain (Rs. 11,065/ha) (ICBR 1:300).
- Farmers of South Gujarat growing hybrid cottons (G.Cot.Hy-6 and G.Cot.DH-9) are advised to spray the crop with 30 % or 20 % Methanol at 65 and 85 days of the germination (@ 300 L/ha and 400 L/ha to realize higher yield and better economic returns (Net profit being Rs. 3802 and Rs. 2412 and ICBR being 1:1.51 and 1:1.44, respectively for the two treatments)-Recommendation put in abeyance due to ban on Methanol.
- Acid delinting of cotton seed does not improve or advance the germination. Hence it is advised that the practice of acid delinting parent/breeder seed may be discontinued.
- Chemical defoliant thiadizuron @ 50 gm/ha at 50 percent boll bursting stage gave maximum yield of cotton without impairing the quality.
RECOMMENDATION FOR COTTON CULTIVATION
Agronomic Practices on cotton.
Spacing in cms
|(Open boll type)|
|1.||Digvijay||4-5||8-10||150x30||90x30||50||20||50 in two equal splits||20|
|3.||G.Cot.17 & G.Cot.23||4-5||8-10||--||120x30 or 150x45||--||40||--||40|
|G.herbaceum (closed and semi open boll types)|
|5.||G.Cot.13 & G.Cot.21||10-12||15-20||--||120x30||--||20||--||20|
|14.||G.Cot.Hy.8||4.0||--||120x60 (Two plants/hill) 120x45(One plant/hill)||--||80(SRT)||40||240**||40|
|16.||G.Cot.DH.7||3.0||--||9.x60 or 120x60(SRT)||90x60(BCH)||40||60||120**||60|
|18||Intercropping of soybean with G.Cot.11 cotton||For securing higher profit, farmers of South Gujarat Zone-II are advised to adopt intercropping of Soybean in cotton with 100% of recommended dose of nitrogen to cotton(80 Kg N/ha) and 50% recommended dose of N and P to soybean (10 Kg N and 20 Kg P2O5/ha) or 50% recommended dose of nitrogen to cotton and 100% recommended dose of N and P to soybean (Bharuch)|
|19||Intercropping of Urid with G.Cot.11 or Tur BDN-2||For securing higher profit, farmers of south Gujarat Zone-II growing rainfed cotton G.Cot.11 or Tur BDN-2 at distance of 120cm between rows are advised to intercrop two rows of urid (30cm apart) between the rows (Bharuch)|
|20||Intercropping of Urid and Mung with G.Cot.Hy.6||For securing higher net profit, farmers of South Gujarat Zone-II growing irrigated cotton G.Cot.Hy.6 at a distance of 120 cm between rows are advised to intercrop one row of soyabean (Gujarat-1) or Urid (Zandewal) or Mung (Gujarat- 2) between the rows(Surat).|
|21||Double cropping with G.Cot.Hy-6 and G.Cot Hy-8 and Wheat and Groundnut||For securing higher net monetary returns, farmers of South Gujarat Zone-II growing irrigated cotton G.Cot-Hy.6 and G.Cot.Hy-8 are advised to grow wheat (Lok-1) or Groundnut (GG-2) as second crops.|
SRT = Surat, BCH= Bharuch, ACH=Achhalia, VIR= Viramgam, TLD= Talod, KHB= Khedbraham JND= Janagadh * Through two equal splits ** Through three equal splits
List of released cotton cultivars from SAU, Surat Station with Characteristics and Economic characters
Year of release
Seed cotton yield kg/h.
2.5 % span length (mm)
Fibre fineness (mv)
Fibre strength (g/tex)
|16||G.Cot.DH-7||Desi hybrid||1984||180-200||1808 2600*||21.8(MFL)||37.5||5.6||49||9.4(PSI)||0.76||28-30|
|20||G.Cot.MDH-11||Male sterility||2002||120-140||1307 2727*||23.8||36.5||5.7||51||19.0(0mm)||0.83||20-30|
|21||G.Cot.Hy-102||Hir x Barb.||2002||220-230||1967||34.0||33.4||3.6||48||25.3(3.2mm)||0.76||60-80|
*Under high care condition
?CICR, 2009-10, Information Compiled by M. Sabesh, CICR