Approved Package of Practices for cotton: Gujarat State
Preparation of land:

In case of normal monsoon, the land should be prepared with 1-2 cross harrowing. This may help in conservation of moisture in the soil. If monsoon receives late, the land should be prepared with one ploughing. Deep ploughing after 2-3 years with tractor drawn implements may reduce the problem of perennial weeds in the field.

Time of sowing:

Normally, the crop is sown with the onset of monsoon in the last week of June to first week of July. Where irrigation facility is available, the crop may be sown little earlier i.e. in the first week of June. Advance sowing of the crop will give higher yield than normally sown crop.

Seed rate and spacing:

The seed requirement of the variety mainly depends upon the size of the seed and method of distance of sowing. Spacing mainly depends on the growth habit of a variety and in which condition it is to be sown i.e. irrigated or rainfed. The details of seed rate and spacing of different cotton varieties is given in table 1. Normally, seed should be sown at a depth of 4-6 cm according to availability of moisture in the soil.

Selection of variety:

In Gujarat, following varieties have been recommended to grow in different cotton zones

Zone Recommended varieties/ hybrids
South Gujarat Cotton Zone Digvijay
Middle Gujarat Cotton Zone Digvijay , G.Cot-16, G.Cot-17 and G.Cot-23
Wagad Cotton Zone V-797, G.Cot-13, G.Cot-21,G.Cot-12 (Surendranagar dist.), G.Cot-18 (Junagadh)
Mathio Cotton Zone G.Cot.15 and G.Cot-19

All hybrids like Hybrid-4, G.Cot.Hy-6, G.Cot.Hy-8, G.Cot.Hy-10, G.Cot.Hy-12, G.Cot.DH-7, G.Cot.DH-9 and G.Cot.MDH-11 and hirsutum varieties like Deviraj and G.Cot.10 are recommended for whole state. The economic characters of different varieties are given in Table-II.

Thinning and gap filling:

To harvest good yield one should maintain proper plant population in unit area. For the purpose one should carry out operation like thinning and gap filling as and when required.

Fertilizer:

The organic manure@ 10 tonnes/ha should be applied as this will help in conservation of moisture, increase in aeration, soil drainage, microbial activity and availability of nutrients. This will also help in improvement of soil structure. The recommended doses of inorganic fertilizers for different varieties are given in Table 1.

Weeding and inter-culturing:

The operation of interculturing and weeding may be followed as per one's requirement. The weed should be removed by following deep ploughing in earlier stage of the crop whereas shallow ploughing in later stage of the crop. This is to avoid damage to root.
In case of chemical weed control, the field should be sprayed with 2.8 litre/ha Fluchloralin in 600 liters of water. If spraying is to be done only on the rows of the crop, the quantity of the weedicide will be lesser i.e. 1 litre/ha or 50 ml in 10 litres of water.

Irrigation:

Where irrigation facility is available, irrigation should be given 3-4 weeks after last effective rainfall. In black soils, generally irrigation should be given at an interval of 20-25 days. Where as, in sandy loam soils (GORADU), it should be given at 15 days interval; irrigation water can be saved by irrigating the crop with alternate furrow method without decreasing in the yield as compared to flood irrigated area.
In rainfed cultivation, when shortage of rainfall occurs, crop should be irrigated with one or two life saving irrigations.


Intercropping:

In cotton various intercrops like soybean, tur, urid and mung can be taken up. The recommendations emerged in Gujarat are given in Table-1.


Plant Protection:

Entomology:

No Pest/disease Measures to be taken
1. Bollworm complex* Cypermethrin 10EC @ 50g ai/ha
Decamethrin 2.8 EC @ 15g ai/ha
Fenvalerate 20 EC @ 100 g ai/ha
Alphamethrin 10 EC @ 25 g ai/ha
Endosulfan 35 EC @ 875 g ai/ha
Profenphos 50 EC @ 1.0 kg ai/ha
Quinalphos 20 AF @ 2.5 l/ha
Polytrin C 44 EC @ 1.0 l/ha
Spinosad 48 SC @ 75g ai/ha
Bulldock 2.5 SC@ 18g ai/ha
*Synthetic pyrethroids should be sprayed twice @ 15-20 days interval at the peak flowering stage alternated with conventional pesticides.
2. Helicoverpa armigera** Rimon 10 EC @ 100g ai/ha
** The IGR is sprayed when pest crosses the ETL
3. Pink bollworm Decis tablet 25% @ 10 g ai/ha (20 tab/ha)
Betacyfluthrin 2.5 SC@ 18g ai/ha
Spinosad 48 SC@ 50 g ai/ha
Methyl-o-demeton @ 1.0 l/ha
4. Aphids, Jassids, Thrips and White
flies ***
Imidacloprid 200 SL@ 20g ai/ha
Acetamiprid 20 SP @ 10g ai/ha
Thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 25g ai/ha
Seed treatment :
Imidacloprid 70 WS @ 7.5 g/kg seed or
Thiamethoxam 70 WS @ 2.8g ai/kg seed or
Imidacloprid 600 FS @ 9ml/kg seed.
***Need based application of any of the insecticides is recommended.
5. White flies Triazophos 40 EC @ 0.75 Kg ai/ha
6. Cotton pest complex IPM strategy :
  • Seed treatment with Imidacloprid @ 7.5 g/kg seeds.
  • Hand collection of infected shoots with spotted bollworms in the early stage.
  • Planting of Maize as a inter crop (10:1), Marigold and Castor as trap crops in and around the cotton.
  • Installation of pheromone trap @ 5/ha. One week after germination.
  • Early release of Chrysoperla @ 10000 eggs or larva /ha (2 release)
  • Spraying of Neem form. or Neem seed kernel suspension @ 5%.
  • Release of Trichogramma @ 1.5 lakh/ha (3 releases).
  • Spraying of HNPV @ 450 LE/ha for Helicoverpa and SNPV @ 250 LE/ha for Spodoptera.
  • Hand collection of eggs and larva of Helicoverpa and eggs and larval masses of spodoptera from main and trap crops.
  • Need based application of insecticides for pests based on ETL.

Plant Pathology

1 Seedborne diseases # Delinting with sulphuric acid @100 ml/kg seed and seed
dressing with mercuric fungicide @2-3 g/kg of seed
#Wash the seeds thoroughly after acid delinting dry it in shade before seed dressing
2 Bacterial blight $ Streptomycin sulphate @0.005% + copper oxychloride 0.2% spray

Bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis Pv. malvacearum) disease of cotton causes 11.95, 11.14 and 9.26% avoidable loss in seed cotton yield of cultivars LRA-5166, G.Cot.Hy-10 and BC-68-2, respectively.
$ Two to three sprays at 15 days interval after disease initiation
3 Wilt and Root rot Follow cultural practices like long term crop rotation, balanced application of NPK, organic manure, mixed cropping of Moth or Urid, irrigation at short intervals, green manuring and destruction of infected debris.
Farmers of Gujarat growing cotton are advised to follow soil amendment with farm yard manure @ 20 tons/ha or pressmud or poultry manure @ 2 tons/ha for effective and economical management of root rot disease.
Farmers of Gujarat growing cotton recommended to following seed treatment with commercially available biocontrol agent Tricoderma viride @ 5g/kg seed for safer, effective and economical management of root rot disease.
4 Alternaria leaf spot ? Captafol or Mancozeb @ 0.2% spray
?Four sprays at 20 days interval after disease initiation

Plant Physiology

  • Seed germination (one month after processing) is not affected by picking or position of boll. Other seed quality parameters are not adversely affected by either picking of position of boll. Therefore, it is recommended to the seed producers of American cotton (e.g. G.Cot.10) that all pickings and positions are alike with respect to fulfilling certification standards of germination (65%).
  • It is recommended to the cotton growing farmers especially seed producers of desi cotton that seed germination is not affected by either picking or position of boll. Therefore, all picking are alike and can be used for seed purpose.
  • Under specific conditions, defoliants like Ethrel 2000 ppm or NaCl 10% solution can be used at 50% boll bursting stage for hastening maturity of crop by about a week. This would also help in getting cleaner kapas.
  • Seed producers of desi cotton hybrid G.Cot.DH-9 are advised to give two sprays of 1 mM Sodium benzoate (1.44 g/10 L. @ 400 L/ha) on female parent at the initiation of crossing programme and twenty days later to get higher seed yield (F1) and economic gain (Rs. 11,065/ha) (ICBR 1:300).
  • Farmers of South Gujarat growing hybrid cottons (G.Cot.Hy-6 and G.Cot.DH-9) are advised to spray the crop with 30 % or 20 % Methanol at 65 and 85 days of the germination (@ 300 L/ha and 400 L/ha to realize higher yield and better economic returns (Net profit being Rs. 3802 and Rs. 2412 and ICBR being 1:1.51 and 1:1.44, respectively for the two treatments)-Recommendation put in abeyance due to ban on Methanol.
  • Acid delinting of cotton seed does not improve or advance the germination. Hence it is advised that the practice of acid delinting parent/breeder seed may be discontinued.
  • Chemical defoliant thiadizuron @ 50 gm/ha at 50 percent boll bursting stage gave maximum yield of cotton without impairing the quality.

RECOMMENDATION FOR COTTON CULTIVATION
Agronomic Practices on cotton.

Sr No
Varieties/hybrids
Seed rate(Kg/ha)
Spacing in cms
Fertilizer (Kg/ha)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
(Open boll type)
1. Digvijay 4-5 8-10 150x30 90x30 50 20 50 in two equal splits 20
2. G.Cot.16 3-4 8-10 -- 90x30 -- 40 -- 40
3. G.Cot.17 & G.Cot.23 4-5 8-10 -- 120x30 or 150x45 -- 40 -- 40
G.herbaceum (closed and semi open boll types)
4. V-797 10-12 15-20 -- 45x22.5 -- 20 -- 20
5. G.Cot.13 & G.Cot.21 10-12 15-20 -- 120x30 -- 20 -- 20
G.arboreum
6. G.Cot.15 3-4 15-20 -- 60x150-20 -- 12.5 -- 12.5
7. G.Cot.19 3-4 15-20 -- 60x150-20 -- 12.5 -- 12.5
G.hirsutum
8. Deviraj 8-10 12-15 120-150x60 -- 25 -- 50* --
9. G.Cot.10 2.5-3.0 8-10 90x30(NG) 90x30 50 -- 100* --
2.5-3.0 8-10 90x60(SG) -- 75 -- 150* --
10. G.Cot.12 8-10 12-15 90-120x 60-75 -- 25 -- 25 --
11. G.Cot.16 3-4 8-10 -- 90x30 -- 40(BCH) -- 40
Intra-hirsutum hybrids
12. Hybrid-4 2.5-3.0 -- 120x60(SRT) -- 80 -- 240** --
90x60(TLD) -- 45-60- -- 135** --
13. G.Cot.Hy.6 2.5-3.0 -- 120x45(SRT) 90x30(BCH) 80 60 240** 60
90x45(JND) -- 40 -- 120** --
90x60(TLD) -- 40 -- 120** --
90x30(ACH) -- 40 -- 120** --
14. G.Cot.Hy.8 4.0 -- 120x60 (Two plants/hill) 120x45(One plant/hill) -- 80(SRT) 40 240** 40
90x30(JND) -- 40 -- 40 --
90x30(TLD) -- 40 -- 120** --
15. G.cot.Hy.10 2.5-3.0 -- 120x45 120x30 60(SRT) 40(BHR) 180** 40
Desi hybrids
16. G.Cot.DH.7 3.0 -- 9.x60 or 120x60(SRT) 90x60(BCH) 40 60 120** 60
17. G.Cot.DH.9 3.0 -- 90x60 -- 40(SRT) 40 120** 40
-- 120x30 40-40-0 (KHBD) -- 40
18 Intercropping of soybean with G.Cot.11 cotton For securing higher profit, farmers of South Gujarat Zone-II are advised to adopt intercropping of Soybean in cotton with 100% of recommended dose of nitrogen to cotton(80 Kg N/ha) and 50% recommended dose of N and P to soybean (10 Kg N and 20 Kg P2O5/ha) or 50% recommended dose of nitrogen to cotton and 100% recommended dose of N and P to soybean (Bharuch)
19 Intercropping of Urid with G.Cot.11 or Tur BDN-2 For securing higher profit, farmers of south Gujarat Zone-II growing rainfed cotton G.Cot.11 or Tur BDN-2 at distance of 120cm between rows are advised to intercrop two rows of urid (30cm apart) between the rows (Bharuch)
20 Intercropping of Urid and Mung with G.Cot.Hy.6 For securing higher net profit, farmers of South Gujarat Zone-II growing irrigated cotton G.Cot.Hy.6 at a distance of 120 cm between rows are advised to intercrop one row of soyabean (Gujarat-1) or Urid (Zandewal) or Mung (Gujarat- 2) between the rows(Surat).
21 Double cropping with G.Cot.Hy-6 and G.Cot Hy-8 and Wheat and Groundnut For securing higher net monetary returns, farmers of South Gujarat Zone-II growing irrigated cotton G.Cot-Hy.6 and G.Cot.Hy-8 are advised to grow wheat (Lok-1) or Groundnut (GG-2) as second crops.
Note :

SRT = Surat, BCH= Bharuch, ACH=Achhalia, VIR= Viramgam, TLD= Talod, KHB= Khedbraham JND= Janagadh * Through two equal splits ** Through three equal splits


List of released cotton cultivars from SAU, Surat Station with Characteristics and Economic characters

135-1401606
Sr.No.
Varieties
Type
Year of release
Maturity days
Seed cotton yield kg/h.
2.5 % span length (mm)
G.P.(%)
Fibre fineness (mv)
LUR
Fibre strength (g/tex)
Maturity Coefficient
Spinning count
1 Digvijay Herbaceum 1956 260 663 23.1 39.0 4.4 50 9.5(PSI) 0.75 40
2 G.Cot.17 Herbaceum 1995 200-230 1375 22.5 40.5 4.1 51 47.1(0mm) 0.79 --
3 G.Cot.23 Herbaceum 2000 190-210 1300 22.4 39.1 4.2 52 22.9(3.2mm) 0.81 16-20
4 G.Cot.16 Hirsutum 1995 135-140 26.8 36.7 4.2 49 47.9(0mm) 0.83 40  
5 V-797 Herbaceum 1966 260-300 787 22.6 39.9 3.9 47 7.7(PSI) 0.82 31
6 G.Cot.13 Herbaceum 1981 245-280 887 23.2 39.4 4.3 48 45.1(0mm) 0.74 30
7 G.Cot.12 Hirsutum 1981 210-220 600 24.3 36.0 4.3 46 8.4(PSI) 0.80 23
8 G.Cot.21 Herbaceum 1998 215-225 1129 23.6 42.1 5.3 48 52.8(0mm) -- 20
9 G.Cot.18 Hirsutum 1999 175-180 1535 27.4 34.0 3.6 48 17.6(0 mm)) 0.85 --
10 G.Cot.15 Arboreum 1989 120-150 1108 21.1(MFL) 32.8 5.7 50 47.2(0mm) 0.78 --
11 G.Cot.19 Arboreum 1997 110-120 1101 25.4 34.5 4.4 50 50.8(0mm) 0.76 --
12 Deviraj Hirsutum 1951 290 1250 27.4 36.3 3.7 45 7.2(PSI) 0.77 43
13 G.Cot.10 Hirsutum 1974 180 1350 24.3 35.7 4.2 48 8.9(PSI) 0.72 40
14 Hybrid-4 Hirsutum 1971 210-230 2103 3400* 26.7 33.4 3.5 40-51 7.5-8.5(PSI) 0.70-0.80 40-60
15 G.Cot.Hy-6 Hirsutum 1980 190-210 1305 3800* 27.5(MFL) 33.6 4.2 48 8.7(PSI) 0.77 60-70
16 G.Cot.DH-7 Desi hybrid 1984 180-200 1808 2600* 21.8(MFL) 37.5 5.6 49 9.4(PSI) 0.76 28-30
17 G.Cot.Hy-8 Hirsutum 1988 170-190 1824 3775* 25.8 36.5 4.5 50 47.8(0mm) 0.83 40-50
18 G.Cot.DH-9 Desi hybrid 1989 180-200 2108 28.4 34.1 4.7 47 49.2(0mm) 0.80 40-50
19 G.Cot.Hy-10 Hirsutum 1995 190-210 1837 3805* 28.9 34.6 4.3 48 43.7(0mm) 0.83 40-50
20 G.Cot.MDH-11 Male sterility 2002 120-140 1307 2727* 23.8 36.5 5.7 51 19.0(0mm) 0.83 20-30
21 G.Cot.Hy-102 Hir x Barb. 2002 220-230 1967 34.0 33.4 3.6 48 25.3(3.2mm) 0.76 60-80
22 G.Cot.Hy-12 Intrahirsutum 2005 175-190 1829 26.6 34.2 4.2 51 22.9(3.2mm) 0.80 40-50

*Under high care condition
?CICR, 2009-10, Information Compiled by M. Sabesh, CICR