List of natural enemies in the cotton ecosystem

Name of natural enemy

Host(s)

Stage attacked

Predators

Chrysopa carnea

Aphid, Whiteflies, thrips, mites

All stages

Menochilus sexmaculata

Aphids

Nymphs and adults

Coccinella septumpunctata

Aphids

Nymphs and adults

Scymnus sp.

Aphids

Nymphs and adults

Syrphus Spp.

Aphids

Nymphs and adults

Parasitoids

Trichogramma chilonis, T. brasiliensis, T.acheae, T. pretiosum

Bollworms

Eggs

Chelonus blackburni

Bollworms

Egg larvae

Telenomus remus

Spodoptera

Eggs

Rhogas aligarhensis

Earias sp.

Larvae

Eucelatoria bryani

H. armigera

Larvae

Carcella illota

H. armigera

Larvae

Campoletis chloridae

H. armigera

Larvae

Bracon greeni, B. kirkpatricki, B. brevicornis

Bollworms

Larvae

Palexorista laxa

Bollworms

Larvae

Agathis sp

Bollworms

Larvae

Encarsia shafeei

Whitefly

Nymphs

Pyemotes ventricosus (mite)

Pink bollworm

Larvae

Goniozus sp

Pink bollworm

Larvae

Apanteles pectinophorae

Pink bollworm

Larvae

Microbracon gelechidiphagus

Pink bollworm

Larvae

Pathogens

Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstakii

H. armigera, Spodoptera and Earias vitella

Larvae

NPV (Virus)

S.litura, H. armigera

Larvae

Beauveria bassiana

H. armigera

Larvae

Nomuraea rileyi

Spodoptera

Larvae

Entomophthora aphidis

Aphids

All stages

Vairrimorpha sp

H. armigera

Larvae

Nosema sp

Spodoptera

Larvae