Whitefly Management

  • Evaluated BT genotypes for their susceptibility to whiteflies in multi-location trials at 5 locations in North India using 2 different dates of sowing, refined screening procedures with appropriate checks.
  • Addressed issues of resistance to commonly used insecticides.
  • Refined and validated a whitefly suction trap for its mechanical control
  • Procured, cultured and evaluated Beauveria bassiana (120) strains for whitefly management in North India and leaf hopper management in central India.
  • Issued advisories for whitefly management that were disseminated and followed in North India.
Yellow Sticky Trap (YST) with selectivity and enhanced efficacy
  • YSTs are used for trapping flying sucking pests, eg. Whitefly adults. Use of oils, step up trapping of adults. Method of dispensing oil is under testing. Methods to make the trap selective are being designed.
CICR Whitefly Adult Suction Trap
A trap named as CICR Whitefly Adult Suction Trap, was designed. The trap is power operated, shoulder mounted, portable, adjustable and suction whitefly adults available on the underside of the cotton leaves without any harm to the natural enemies flora and cotton crop itself.. Standard operating time of the day/season of the year
  • The use of trap is advisable when pest incidence is high in cotton especially during two peak period of activity i.e. first flush (30SMW) as well as during the later flush (40 SMW), in cotton ecosystem under North Indian condition.
  • Trap helps in reduction of whitefly population ranging from 40-52% depending upon the pest population whereas for rest part of India the whitefly adult trap can be operated depending upon pest population.
  • The traps can be operated when the weather is clear and there is no morning humidity and plants are dry. The traps can be operated in all field/ fruits and vegetable crops where whitefly incidence is noticed.

Development of detection kits

  • Bt detection kits : Six kits namely: Bt-Express, Bt-Quant, Bt-Detect, Bt-Zygosity, Bt-Express-II and Bt-Elisa II have been developed and commercialized. A Bt referral lab was opened by Government of India in the Institute.
  • Insecticide resistance detection kits : Eleven kits to detect resistance to pyrethroids, endosulfan and methomyl were developed which include 4 SCAR markers, 3 ELISA kits, 2 dot-blot and 2 immunochromatographic dip-sticks. The immunochromatographic kits were distributed to entomologists of State Agricultural Universities for field validation.
    Resistant strains selected with cry l Ac exhibited a broad-spectrum resistance, to a variable degree, to almost all the Cry 1 toxins tested but showed an unchanged susceptibility pattern to cry2Ab. A near-isogenic crylAc-line exhibited some amount of cross-resistance to cry2Ab. Joint toxic action studies indicated that none of the Cryl toxin combinations displayed any significant synergism.
  • Kits to detect quality of spurious insecticides formulations : Eight kits, which include ELISA as well as dipstick to test the quality and residue of pyrethroids and endosulfan have been developed. 
  • PCR detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum : PCR method was used for detection of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum from cotton seed. This method can be used in quarantine testing of seed material.
  • PCR detection of bacterial blight pathogen : Commercialization of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum detection kit
    A ready-to-use PCR kit for detection of strain, of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum ha been approved by the institute for patent filing. The kit was successfully validated at seven research labs of ICAR Institutes and SAU’s. The kit is routinely used to detect the pathogen strains and also to differentiate it from morphologically alike yellow colored non-Xanthomonads that are consistently associated with cotton and encountered in cultures as contaminants.

Cotton Pest Management Strategies

  • The institute is known for its pioneering work on fundamental research on insect resistance to insecticides and Bt toxins. Scientists of the institute developed stochastic models and developed IRM (Insecticide Resistance Management) strategies for the country. The institute provided leadership for national dissemination of the IRM and IPM (Integrated Pest Management) technologies for conventional and Bt-cotton.

 

Sucking pest
  • Three novel lectins have been identified by the institute as promising candidate genes for the control of sap-sucking insect pests (aphids, leaf hoppers, and whiteflies).
  • Artificial diet for aphids, leaf hoppers and whiteflies for use in bioassays : An artificial diet for sucking pests has been developed. It can support nymphs and adults throughout the period of bioassay.  The diet needs to be stored at 4oC and should be changed every alternate day. The diet has been validated across labs (Coimbatore for jassids, and Sirsa for whiteflies). This technology is for use by researchers.

 

American Bollworm
  • Development of weather-based forewarning systems : Greater than 70% relative humidity during August-September months and un-seasonal excess rainfall during the season distributed on many rainy days and rainfall amount more than 50 mm during October results in outbreak of H. armigera.
  • Variability among the pests : Mitochondrial DNA studies revealed the presence of 18 haplotypes in Indian H. armigera. PCR RFLP with Rsa 1 was able to distinguish H. armigera from H. assulta in their morphological indistinguishable stages. The non- cotton strains of H. armigera preferred to feed on red gram and chickpea over cotton and in inter strain crosses the female moth influences the feeding preference of the progeny.

 

Pink Bollworm
  • Effective Integrated Pest Management Strategies were developed for the management of pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella.
  • Artificial rearing of pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) has been developed.
  • Pheromone trap: Mass trapping of pink bollworm facilitated with the development of indigenous low cost long acting pheromone formulation for use in conventional and organic farms
  • Pink bollworm and its management on BGII cotton : Monitoring of PBW outbreak on cotton. Resistance monitoring to Cry toxins. Recording natural mortality in field collected populations of PBW. Mass multiplication and evaluation of Trichogrammabactrea as an egg parasitoid. Development and validation of indigenous pheromone lures for long lasting action vis-a-vis commercial lures. Pink bollworm management guidelines issued as advisories, indicating responsibilities and action to be taken by each stakeholder of the technology.
  • Development of weather-based forewarning systems : Maximum temperature greater than 33°C, morning relative humidity less than 70%, evening relative humidity more than 40% and minimum temperature less than 12°C during standard weeks of 40, 41, 43 onwards, 48 and 49, respectively led to the severity of P .gossypiella attack.
  • Semi-synthetic diet for artificial rearing of pink bollworm : A monophasic diet of cotton seed flour was developed for rearing of pink bollworm in the lab. Larvae were reared from neonates till pupation on a single diet. There were no aberrations in the emergence of the adults or in their mating and fecundity.
Mealybug
  • Evaluation of biopesticides  against mealybug revealed that Acephate, Chlorpyriphos, Mealy quit and Fish Oil Rosin Soap were moderately effective in reducing the mealybug (P. marginatus) and brought out a reduction of 39.6, 37.3, 36.2 and 30.4 % respectively. Acephate and Chlorpyriphos were detrimental to the predators (Coccinellid & Spiders), while the biopesticides were found to be moderately safe. Acephate, Chlorpyriphos, Fish Oil Rosin Soap and Nirma Powder (detergent) recorded higher yield by 56.5, 50.8, 46.1 and 45.4 % respectively. The biopesticides M. anisopliae, V. lecanii and B. bassiana recorded moderately higher yield by 31.9 to 36.9 %.
  • Evaluation of biopesticides and insecticides to identify the most eco-friendly   management strategy against maleybug  revaled that Profenophos (500 g ai/ha), Acephate (700g) Dimethoate (225 g) and Chlorpyriphos (500 g) were effective. Nirma powder (2.5 kg/ha) was also effective.  Beaveria bassiana (2.5 kg/ha) and Acetamiprid (20 G) were moderately effective.  All the above treatments were not detrimental for predators (Spiders and Coccinellids).  Profenophos and Acephate recorded higher yield by 22.7 and 34.0 % over control respectively.
  • Host Plants of Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley cotton agro-ecosystems : A total of 166 host plants belonging to 51 families (comprising of 78 weeds, 27 ornamentals, 18 trees, 17 vegetables, 12 field crops, 8 fruit plants and 4 spice plants) were recorded as the host plants of P. solenopsisin the three cotton agro-ecosystems of India.
  • Mealy bug infestation reduced the plant height, number of nodes and fruiting bodies in infested plants as compared to healthy plants. Maximum percentage reduction in plant height, number of nodes and fruiting bodies were recorded in MRC 7201BG II (40.77, 51.28, and 65.00) followed by RCH 530 BG II (36.45, 37.50 and 58.99).
  • Histopathological examination was made to understand the pathogenic mechanism of entomopathogens against cotton mealybug P. marginatus. Variations were observed in timing and duration of the different phases of infection among entomopathogens. During pathogenesis cycle, changes in biochemicals viz., total free sugar, protein and free amino acid content changes on P. marginatus and P. solenopsis were analysed during 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th day after inoculation.
  • A total of 43 isolates of native entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from mealy bug and identified. Molecular characterization of five fungi were carried out and submitted to Gena Bank. Lecanicillium fusisporum (JF 427909) , L.araneicola (JN 255572), Metarhizium anisopliae ARSEF 9612 (JN 712743), M.anisopliae ARSEF 9613 (JQ 062986)and L.attenuatum (JQ 327150.1).
  • In cotton, from P. marginatus, two parasitoids viz., Torymus sp. and Prochiloneurus aegyptiacus (Mercet) were recorded. From P. solenopsis parasitoid Aenasius sp. recorded. During off season also incidence of mealybug and parasitoids were recorded on alternate hosts. Growth parameters of cotton mealybug viz., P. marginatus and P. solenopsis were observed at 20oc and 25oc and at room temperature. Totally, there are 148 alternate hosts were recorded including weeds, ornamentals, vegetables and fruit trees were recorded as alternate hosts of the cotton mealybug viz., P. marginatus and P. solenopsis.
  • Screening of fungi against mealy bug (Phenococcus solenopsis and Paracoccus marginatus) under lab and pot culture condition revealed that an isolate of L.lecanii and two isolates of M.anisopliae were found to be virulent against mealy bug. Standardeised methodology for screening large number of entomopathogenic fungi against mealy bug  under lab condition.
  • Occurrence and seasonal dynamics of emerging pests: Mealybug infestation ranged from 32.1 to 40.7 per cent and the intensity of damage ranged from 1.00 to 1.06 grade. The mean infestation of mirid bug ranged from 18.2 to 27.7 per cent and the nymphal population ranged from 9.1 to 13.8 per 50 squares. The predominant predators were coccinellids and spiders. The former ranged from 12.2 to 16.6 and the later ranged from 23.7 to 29.4 per 50 plants.
  • Temperature optima for infection of L.lecanii and M .anisopliae on mealy bug were standardized. Effect of RH on infectivity of native entomopathogenic fungi was studied. A new method for increasing the virulence of entomopathogenic fungi was developed. Optimum carbon and nitrogen sources for the mass production of fungi were standardized. A simple, low cost methodology for mass production of L.lecanii and M.anisopliae were standardized.
  • Formulation of M.anisopliae developed at CICR, Coimbatore and F.pallidoroseum developed at CICR, Sirsa were found to significantly reduce mealy bug population.
  • A protocol for multiplication of P. solenopsis and its biological control agents viz., Aenasius bambawalei and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri has been developed.
  • Inoculative release of Aenasius bombawalei (Hayat), a newly identified parasitoid of mealy bug. Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) in the mealy bug infested areas of North India. A 30-70% parasitization of mealy bug has been reported by this parasitiod at various locations. 
  • A new entomopathogen identified as Fusarium pallidoroseum was observed from mealy bug cadavers during the surveys carried out during 2007 08 & 2008-09. It (5%w/w) showed control of 83.6, 75.0 and 40.0 percent of 5, 10 & 15 days old crawlers of mealy bug.
  • ‘Mealy-Quit’ bio insecticidal formulation against mealybug : Mealy Quit has been tested at 9 locations in India during the 2008-09 cropping season, and under AICCIP at 9 locations during the 2009-10 season.  The formulation has been found to be effective against the mealybug, P. solenopsis under field conditions. The product is ecofriendly, safer to natural enemies, cost effective, least harmful to human beings, and is compatible with the other inorganic  pesticides.
  • Mealy Kill 50 EC for sucking pest management in conventional and organic cotton: Based on the volatiles released during the signal transduction pathway in cotton, Mealy Kill 50 EC was developed and validated for its use on sucking pests of cotton, including mealy bugs. It effected mealybugs and whiteflies by dissolving the waxy coating, and made the pests vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stress factors. It also affected jassid nymphs and aphids through contact action.
  • Eco-friendly mealybug management strategies disseminated: eco-friendly strategies for the management of P. solenopsis so as to prevent its spread, especially by ensuring that the management interventions do not disturb naturally occurring control agents of mealybugs and other insect pests. For effective prevention of mealybug infestation, management strategies were disseminated among the cotton growers across India, which included: 1) regular monitoring, 2) clean cultivation, 3) cultivating border rows of pigeonpea, 4) spot application/ localized spraying of neem oil, 5) inoculative release of ladybird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, wherever possible, 6) conserving natural enemies by avoiding sprays of extremely hazardous insecticides, 7) if necessary, sprays of biorationals such as Neem oil, Verticillium lecani,  Beauveria bassiana, Buprofezin and Acephate (slightly hazardous WHO class: III) have been recommended.
Stem weevil

 

Development of management strategies for Stem Weevil (Pempherulus affinis Faust)
  • Reduced cropping intensity and high seed rate
  • Destroying affected and dried plants and earthing upto prevent oviposition
  • Application of neemcake (150 kgs/ha) + Carbofuran (1.0 kg a.i/ha) at 15-20 days after sowing (DAS) and stem drenching with neem seed extract 5% from 45 DAS,4 times at weekly interval or drenching with Chlorpyriphos 0.1%, 4 times at weekly interval from 45 DAS
Mirid Bug
  • Population dynamics and the damage potential of mirid bug Creontiades biseratense in different cropping systems indicated that  the adult population started on November 1st week continued up to December 3rd week and nymphs appeared on October 2nd fortnight and continued up to January 1st fortnight. Mean population of adult and nymph varied from 0.05 to 2.15/square and 0.05 to 4.70/square respectively. Percentage of square and boll damage varied from 1.31 to 32.38 and 0 to 13.55 respectively.
  • Sampling technique for mirids : A new sampling plan was devised, and optimum sample size established for field  population estimates of the mired bug, Campylomma livida in cotton and pigeon pea cropping system in the central zone; and Creontiades biseratense in cotton  + pulse – maize cropping system in South zone. Top one-third portion was found to be appropriate for sampling both the species. Fifteen plants per acre are sufficient to assess the population.
Nematodes
  • An extensive survey on nematodes associated with cotton revealed the presence of 10 genera of nematodes in the rhizosphere. Among them Reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis was the dominant genera recorded. R.reniformis collected from the rhizosphere of Bt cotton was identified as Race A. Reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis was identified as key nematode pest of cotton.
  • Susceptibility of Bt cotton hybrids to reniform nematode was proved. R.reniformis completes one lifecycle in 25 – 26 days in both Bt and non Bt hybrids. Histopathological changes due to nematode infection in Bt and non Bt hybrids were same. Pathogenicity of reniform nematode to cotton was proved under pot culture and micro-plot condition. Economic threshold level (ETL) for reniform nematode infection was two infective juveniles per gram soil. Symptoms due to nematode infection in cotton were described.
  • An experiment was conducted to find temporal and spatial distribution of nematodes mainly to standardize the optimum distance and depth to collect soil samples from farmer’s field. Soil sample collected from 15 – 45 cm near root zone yielded maximum number of nematodes. A protocol by using Indian ink for the identification of nematode infection in cotton under farmer’s field was standardized. An integrated nematode management strategy for reniform nematode in cotton was standardized.
  • Detailed morphometric analysis of native entomopathogenic nematodes leads to the identification of Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema siamkayai. Pathogenicity of both nematodes to different instars of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura were proved. Survey on native entomopathogenic nematodes from the rhizosphere of cotton revealed the presence of nematodes in 8-10 per cent of soil samples collected. Both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema were isolated. A methodology for in-vivo multiplication of H.indica and S.siamkayai was standardized. Standardized the methodology for isolation and identification of bacterial symbionts from the infective juveniles and hosts.  Standardized optimum temperature and pH for multiplication of bacterial symbionts.

Cotton Disease Management Strategies

  • Standardization of Reverse Transcription Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) for rapid diagnosis of TSV : Designed LAMP primers for both Tobacco streak virus (TSV) and Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV). Optimized the PCR condition for both TSV and CLCV. Standardized the protocol for diagnosis of TSV of cotton and soybean by using PCR  and LAMP techniques
  • Development of weather-based forewarning systems for diseases: Factors affecting disease onset and development were identified in order to develop prediction and forecasting models for bacterial blight. High disease intensity was favoured by Maximum temperature of 29.4 - 34.9°C, minimum temperature of 21.7 - 24.2 °C, maximum relative humidity 81-93%, minimum relative humidity 55-87% and 1-6 rainy days.
  • Biochemical marker of diseases resistance : Critical biochemical markers for grey mildew resistance in diploid cotton were identified. The resistant cotton were characterized not only by their higher constitutive levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and the phenolics catalyzed by the enzyme, but also their inherent rapid inducing ability when invaded by the pathogen.
  • Characterization of new diseases : Extensive investigations on new wilt disease of cotton showed that the malady was a physiological disorder that usually manifests when there is sudden downpour following a dry spell. Documentation of symptoms, factors affecting onset of the malady, ways of ameliorating the disorder were reported. Late-season Phoma blight, a new disease of cotton was reported for the first time. Detailed symptoms of the disease with various characteristics features were documented.
  • PCR based diagnostic method for the identification of Cotton leaf curl dwarf virus : Primers have been designed for amplification of the coat protein gene of the virus causing CLCDV. PCR conditions have been standardized. The PCR protocol can be used in cotton as well as in chickpea before the manifestation of symptoms in the field.
  • PCR detection of CLCuV: A pair of primer designed to detect CLCuV in infected cotton plants as well as symptom less host by amplification of a 0.7 kb coat protein gene of the virus has been developed. The PCR protocol is simple and can be accomplished within 1.44h
  • Immunological detection of CLCuV: Simple tissue imprint blotting protocol for detection of CLCuV infection is developed. The twig imprints of the infected and healthy plants can be observed by chromogenic detection using anti-CaLCuV (Cabbage leaf curl virus) antibody.
  • Documentation of CLCuV symptoms on cotton: Six different symptoms types of cotton leaf curl virus disease viz., upward and downward curling of lamina, severe and mild curling, vein-thickening and enation, were documented based on a survey of disease in status of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan, where the disease is prevalent..
  • Characterisation of CLCuV strains: Sequencing of viral genomes from six different symptomatic plants revealed wide variability in nucleotide sequences of DNA A and ß-DNA indicating possibilities of existence of different strains capable of inducing variable symptoms and disease severity.
  • Ramularia areola: Variability in R.areola was recorded on the basis of morphological or cultural characters host response to cross inoculation and polymorphism in RAPD-PCR profiles.

Insecticide Resistance Management Program

  • Strategies were implemented in an area of about 200,000 ha in fields of 132000 farmers of 1682 villages in 30 districts of 10 cotton growing states over a period of 6 years during 2001-2007.The overall benefit due to the project implementation was estimated at Rs.130 crores, accured from Rs.80 crores due to yield increase and Rs.50 crores from reduced insecticide usage.
  • Development of pest management strategies for Bt cotton : The Insecticide Resistance Management program being implemented since 2002 was refined to tackle emerging pests on Bt cotton. The refined package also cautions people against the use of neonicotinoids as sprays on Bt cotton because of development of resistance to neonicotinoids (output of TMC Mm3.2), and that Bt cotton hybrids seeds are already reated with GauchoR.  Use of Trichogramma was found to be redundant. Use of Bt as sprays on Bt cotton should be avoided as it would lead to further selection for resistance to Bt. Use of NPV was however recommended. Finally, use of hazardous chemistries against mealy bugs was discouraged. In fact, insecticide intervention for mealy bug management was discouraged unless the situation warranted its use.
  • IRM strategies developed: The IRM strategies developed by CICR is being implemented successfully  across the country under the aegis of TMC.
    2007-08: The total additional economic benefit resulting from the project implementation is estimated at US $ 12,894,500 on account of US $ 10,452,000 due to enhancement in yields and US $ 2,442,500 due to savings on insecticides.
    2009-10: Insecticide Pest Resistance Management Program (IRM) was conducted over an area of 80,003 hectares, reaching out to 38472 farmers over 662 villages. In IRM fields farmers sprayed 3.4 sprays/Ha as compared to non IRM (5.7sprays/Ha) farmers. The total additional benefit due to IRM was Rs.81.63 crores ($1.77 crores) while benefit due to saving on sprays was Rs.10.87 crores ($ 0.24 crores)and the benefit due to yield  was Rs.70.76 crores ($1.54 crores).
    2010-11: Insect Pest Resistance Management (IRM) Project was implemented on 38,243 ha area of 16,950 farmers from 249 villages from 10 different states. In IRM fields, farmers sprayed average 3 sprays/ha as compared to 5.2 sprays/ha by non-IRM fields. The total benefit due to IRM was Rs.50.23 crores ($1.09 crores) by way of increased yields, 12.05 crores($0.26 crores) by way of reduced pesticide use and the total benefit was Rs.62.28 crores ($1.35 crores)  in the year.
    2011-12, the IRM Project was implemented successfully in 10 major cotton-growing states of the country covering 320 villages in 21 districts. A total of 19,140 farmers were enrolled as direct beneficiaries to implement IRM strategies in total 43,322.15 hectares area. In IRM fields, farmers sprayed average 3.55 sprays/ha as compared to 5.99 sprays/ha by non-IRM fields. Average yield of IRM and non-IRM fields was 18.71 and 16.67 q/ha.  Implementation of the programme resulted in yield increases estimated at a net additional benefit of Rs 45.75 crores and a saving on reduction in insecticide use accounting for Rs 4.44 crores, thus adding up to a total additional benefit of Rs 50.19 crores due to the project.
    Year No. States Districts Villages Farmers Area (Ha.)
    2007-08 10 31 840 49149 92191
    2008-09 10 32 851 45557 80124
    2009-10 10 33 662 38472 80003
    2010-11 10 21 249 16950 38243
    2011-12 10 21 320 19140 43322

Dynamics of cotton insect pests and natural enemies

  • Crop Pest Interactions :Developed and validated Genotypic Resistance Ratio (GRR) technique to evaluate cotton breeding materials against bollworms that quantifies the combined plant resistance mechanisms to cotton insect pests including the tolerance trait of ?compensatory growth' in response to bollworm damage.
  • Loss assessment: Avoidable losses due to sucking pests in cotton variety LRA 5166 and hybrid NHH 44 ranged between 15-22% and 5-18% respectively whereas due to bollworms ranged between 30-35% in hybrid and between 25-30% in variety. A linear relationship and significantly positive correlation was observed between bacterial blight intensity and losses in seed cotton yield. On susceptible cultivar a potential loss vary from 9.1 to 32.29% with an average loss of 18.07%.

Development of weather-based forewarning systems for crop pests and diseases:

  • Greater than 70% relative humidity during August-September months and un-seasonal excess rainfall during the season distributed on many rainy days and rainfall amount more than 50 mm during October results in outbreak of H.armigera. Maximum temperature greater than 33 0 C, morning relative humidity less than 70%, evening relative humidity more than 40% and minimum temperature less than 12 0 C during standard weeks of 40, 41, 43 onwards, 48 and 49, respectively led to the severity of P.gossypiella attack. Factors affecting disease onset and development were identified in order to develop prediction and forecasting models for bacterial blight. High disease intensity was favoured by maximum temperature of 29.4-34.9 0 C, minimum temperature of 21.7-24.2 0 C, Maximum relative humidity 81-93%, minimum relative humidity 55-87% and 1-6 rainy days.
  • An Expert System for Indian Cotton Insect Pest Management (ICOTIPM) for diagnosis of insect pests was developed to determine the population size or damage through sampling methods to use with ETL and select ETL based insecticidal control measures.

Biological control :

 

  • The mass multiplication protocols for HNPV, Crysoperla carnea and Trichogramma were standardized. Further the institute facilitated and supported the establishment of biocontrol factories in Vidarbh region of Maharashtra.
  • Full-fledged world class in sectary set up for the first time where rearing of bollworms has been successfully carried out for more than 20 generations. The in sectary maintains up to 53 cultures of Helicoverpa and 20 cultures of spotted bollworms.
  • Near isogenic lines of Helicoverpa with reference to specific insecticide groups such as Endosulfan, methomyl, Quinalphos, cry 1 Ac etc. are being maintained. Insecticide susceptible reference strains of Helicoverpa are being maintained.
  • Farmers friendly Bt production technology popularly known as Bt bucket was developed which was subsequently converted to Bt drum.
  • Out of 148 bacterial isolates 5 were found to be very inhibitor of Xam in vitro. Eight potential isolates of Pseudomonas fluoresces and one isolate of Bacillus firmus isolated were found to be effective against Xam. 9 selected isolates provided high levels of antagonism against Xam in vitro.
  • Of the 16 indigenous isolates of Entomopathogenic nematodes belonging to Steinernema and Heterorhabditis spp.collected and evaluated against H.armigera, five were found to be effective against H.armigera at 10-15 infective juveniles per insect larva, under laboratory conditions. Two photorphabdus isolates symbiont of entomophogenic nematodes were recorded to be antagonistic towards sucking insect pests of cotton.

 

Information compiled, Page designed and developed by Dr. M. Sabesh, Sr. Scientist, CICR
Page created in 2002; Last updated on 08:02:2018
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